The Lee Company specialized in denim work wear, and by the s they had expanded into casual wear. Levi Strauss , as a young man in , went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. A Cultural History of an American Icon. A brief overview is provided to show how a garment that began as folk work clothes progressed over the years to become one of the most popular casual wear garb in modern society. Well in this article — we help you solve these issues so you can find the perfect pair!
Tommy Jeans featured a number of baggy styles that were favored by the hip-hop set. The baggy look did not hit mainstream Agins, , p. Around the mids young people were dressing up as bohemians in beat-up looking jeans.
They wore ripped jeans with leather jackets and T-shirts; they colored their hair in unusual colors and wore multiple earrings The People History. Trend following clothing manufacturers noticed that young people were slashing their jeans themselves so they introduced jeans with a worn, torn, and faded look Laver, , p. But, the youth found the price of distressed jeans outrageous. Ralph Lauren tried to capture the western wear market in by offering an alternative design to the Wrangler and Lee jeans with his line of tight-fitting jeans.
In the Buffalo label also came out with skin-tight jeans. Certain wearers would require assistance to get into them. The tightest fitting jeans in existence were referred to as French Jeans Agins, , p. For men who wanted a bulging crotch to show underneath their skin-tight jeans, Lee Cooper released the Pack-it Jean in the s.
This trend was of a short duration, but the Pack-it Jean was re-released in Lee, , p. Low-rise and Peek-a-boo Jeans. Baring the butt crack was a familiar sight in the s. During that period of time Levis introduced its line of Dangerously Low jeans for women and men, and Old Navy was selling in its stores ultra-low-rise jeans.
The lowest of the lows on the rise on a pair Frankie B. In the fall of , Lee Cooper in the UK launched Butt Couture, a line of jeans made from lightweight denim designed intentionally with a gap between the waistband and the pants to create a peek-a-boo effect Lee, , p.
Pop singers like Christian Aguilera, Madonna, Beyoncé Knowles and Britney Spears are known for having worn jeans so low and snug while dancing that people were concerned that they would pop right out of their jeans or bust a seam Lee, , p.
Although some pop stars may look very sexy in their tight jeans, the consumer must be aware that not all jean styles and fads may compliment their figure. Lee refers to medical evidence in her book that has led some doctors to conclude that tight-fitting jeans can create health problems. Doctors noticed, for example, that when the men who had complained of stomach problems, including heartburn and distension switched to baggy pants their symptoms disappeared.
In the case of women, the wearing of tight pants can result in endometriosis, one of the top three causes of female infertility. In addition, tight waists may also cause a number of vascular problems. They are worn in business, government, professional offices, educational institutions, and in most public places. Jeans are one of the most simple, versatile, and enduring garments in modern society because they make no distinction between classes, sexes, and age groups.
The end of fashion. How marketing changed the clothing business forever. Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. The history of costume and personal adornment.
Clothing of the 20th century. Horton Journal of Canadian History H. The changing shape of fashion through the years. Putting words, stories into song. Rodeo royalty in the American West. University of Nebraska Press. Lee Mercantile Company Our love-hate relationship with dressing, shopping, and the cost of style. Marquis of Fashion Blog. Malicious Mom Bum and How to Avoid it. Understanding dress in contemporary society.
The Dynamics of Fashion. Fashion Institute of Technology, New York. The Fashion Book The Indian Textile Journal Nov. Some aspects of producing stretch denim fabric. Survey of historic costume. A history of Western dress. Great Western Garment Co. How Jeans are made. Spot on with this write-up, I honestly believe that this amazing site needs much more attention. The complete list of the best fashion history articles of Jeans are a type of trousers , typically made from denim or dungaree cloth.
Often the term "jeans" refers to a particular style of trousers, called "blue jeans", which were invented by Jacob W. Davis and Levi Strauss on May 20, Prior to the Levi Strauss patented trousers, the term "blue jeans" had been long in use for various garments including trousers, overalls, and coats , constructed from blue-colored denim.
Jean cloth can be entirely cotton as well, similar to denim. Originally designed for cowboys and miners , modern jeans became popular in the s among teenagers , especially members of the greaser subculture.
Jeans were a common fashion item in the s hippie subculture and they continued to be popular in the s and s youth subcultures of punk rock and heavy metal. Nowadays, they are one of the most popular types of trousers, especially in Western culture. Historic brands include Levi's , Lee , and Wrangler.
Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa , Italy , and Nîmes , France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa , may be the origin of the word "jeans". In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes , meaning "from Nîmes". Genoa's jean fabric was a fustian textile of "medium quality and of reasonable cost", very similar to cotton corduroy for which Genoa was famous, and was "used for work clothes in general".
The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry. It was replaced by indigo synthesis methods developed in Germany. By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.
This is seen in a series of genre paintings from around the 17th century attributed to an artist now nicknamed The Master of the Blue Jeans. The fabric would have been Genoese jean, which was cheaper. Genre painting came to prominence in late 16th century, and the non-nobility subject matter in all ten paintings places them among others that portray similar scenes. Dungaree was mentioned for the first time in the 17th century, when it was referred to as cheap, coarse thick cotton cloth, often colored blue but sometimes white, worn by impoverished people in what was then a region of Bombay , India a dockside village called Dongri.
This cloth was "dungri" in Hindi. Dungri was exported to England and used for manufacturing of cheap, robust working clothes. In English, the word "dungri" became pronounced as "dungaree". The term jeans appears first in , when a Swiss banker by the name Jean-Gabriel Eynard and his brother Jacques went to Genoa and both were soon heading a flourishing commercial concern.
In Massena 's troops entered the town and Jean-Gabriel was entrusted with their supply. In particular he furnished them with uniforms cut from blue cloth called "bleu de Genes" whence later derives the famous garment known worldwide as "blue jeans". Levi Strauss , as a young man in , went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store.
In , he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business. In , Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets. Levi accepted Davis's offer,  and the two men received US patent No. Davis and Strauss experimented with different fabrics. An early attempt was brown cotton duck , a bottom-weight fabric. The denim used was produced by an American manufacturer.
Popular legend incorrectly states that it was imported from Nimes, France. A popular myth is that Strauss initially sold brown canvas pants to miners, later dyed them blue, turned to using denim, and only after Davis wrote to him, added rivets.
Initially, Strauss' jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by factory workers , miners, farmers, and cattlemen throughout the North American West.
Later, the jeans were redesigned to today's industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets. Fewer jeans were made during World War II , but 'waist overalls' were introduced to the world by US soldiers, who sometimes wore them off duty.
Historic photographs indicate that in the decades before they became a staple of fashion, jeans generally fit quite loosely, much like a pair of bib overalls without the bib. Indeed, until , Levi Strauss called its flagship product "waist overalls" rather than "jeans". After James Dean popularized them in the movie Rebel Without a Cause , wearing jeans became a symbol of youth rebellion during the s.
Examples of intentional denim distressing strictly to make them more fashionable can be seen as early as in Vogue's June issue. Acceptance of jeans continued through the s and s. Originally an esoteric fashion choice, in the s jeans may be seen being worn by men and women of all ages. Traditionally, jeans were dyed to a blue color using natural indigo dye. Most denim is now dyed using synthetic indigo. Currently, jeans are produced in any color that can be achieved with cotton. For more information on dyeing, refer to denim and the discussion there of using pigment dyes.
In Levi Strauss introduced pre-shrunk jeans, which did not shrink further after purchase, allowing the consumer to purchase a correctly fitting size. The are almost identical to the s with the exception of the button-fly.
The Levi's Corporation also introduced a slim boot-cut fit known as and The difference between the two is the s sit at the waist line and the s sit below the waist line. Later, Levi's would develop other styles and fits such as the loose, slim, comfort, relaxed, skinny, and a regular fit with a tapered leg. Ripping or distressing of jeans, though also arising naturally as a result of wear and tear, is sometimes deliberately performed by suppliers - with distressed clothing sometimes selling for more than a nondistressed pair.
Consumers wanting jeans that appear worn can buy jeans that have been specially treated. To give the fabrics the worn look, sandblasting done with chemicals or by adding pumice stone to the washing process or abrading with sandpaper is often done. A typical pair of blue jeans uses gallons liters of water during its life cycle. This includes the water to irrigate the cotton crop, manufacture the jeans, and the numerous washes by the consumer.
The production of jeans with a "used look" can be more environmentally damaging than regular jeans  [ citation needed ] , depending on how the waste compounds are processed. Sandblasting and treating with sandpaper has the risk of causing silicosis to the workers, and in Turkey , more than 5, textile workers have been stricken with this disease, and 46 people are known to have died.
Some companies have announced they are banning the use of sandblasting. Despite most jeans being "pre-shrunk", they are still sensitive to slight further shrinkage and loss of color from being washed. The Levi Strauss company recommends avoiding washing jeans as much as possible. Carl Chiara, Levi Strauss director of brand and special projects, has a credo: The less you wash your jeans, the better your jeans become.
Unzipped , clarifies in a response to such a criticism:. Our advice is to wash less often, but clearly, you have to judge for yourself what's appropriate. Hot day, dirty job? Cold day, office job? Maybe you can wear them twice or more before they go back to the washing machine. Personally, if I wear a pair of jeans to work on Friday—cool climate, office job—I tend to wear them on Saturday. And if Saturday is spent indoors and I'm not spilling food all over myself, I might even wear them on Sunday.
For those who prefer to refrain from washing their jeans there have been suggestions to freeze them in order to kill the germs that cause odor. However, this advice has been disputed as ineffective and replaced with the suggestion of baking them for ten minutes at degrees Fahrenheit.
Jeans are covered under laws regarding trousers. As well, there have been some notable legal cases involving jeans specifically:. In Rome , Italy , in , a year-old driving instructor was accused of rape.
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