Fought under its true flag.
The experiment consisted of positioning the drill vertically, cups "up," and pressing the drill switch on the motor. The drill motor and its associated cup, containing one of the steel balls rapidly spun up to approximately 27, RPM. The cup attached to the side of the drill with the second steel ball inside it When the drill motor had attained its maximum speed, DePalma or, more often, Ed Delvers, his assistant This would, of course, cause both 1-inch pinballs to fly out of their retaining cups in the same upward direction -- the "spinning ball" hence the name DePalma, from his years spent working with Dr.
Herald Edgerton at MIT -- the famed inventor of "stroboscopic photography" -- was an expert in such stop-motion photography as well. By positioning Delvers against a gridded black background, in a darkened laboratory below , and then illluminating the two upward-flying steel balls with a powerful strobe light , DePalma was able to take time-exposure photographs with the camera's shutter open, the "pinballs" only illuminated at 60 times per second by the strobe's periodic flash The result was a striking "stroboscopic, time-lapse photograph" of the parabolic arc of both steel balls -- flying upward and then downward under Earth's gravitational acceleration below.
An experimental result in direct violation of everything physicists have thought they've known about both Newton's Laws and Einstein's Relativity Nothing else has been added or altered. What this photograph reveals is truly remarkable Thus violating the foundation of all modern physics in one elegantly simple experiment -- which anyone can safely repeat When I first saw the orbit of Explorer I below, right - outer blue line -- compared to the intended orbit below, right - inner red line -- my thoughts instantly flashed to the DePalma's remarkable and highly controversial "spinning ball experiment" below - left The physics of each was identical -- a "mass" thrust vertically against the pull of Earth's gravity by an "outside" force; in Depalma's case, literally the hand of the experimeter -- throwing the two pinballs simultaneously into the air at the same speed; in the Explorer I example, von Braun's Jupiter-C rocket supplying the "outside force" -- accelerating the satellite into a trajectory fast enough and high enough to eventually "fall around the Earth" without hitting it Was it possible that von Braun had -- inadvertantly --somehow duplicated some aspect of Depalma's elegantly simple "spinning ball experiment" that night in January, Of course, this didn't explain anything about why the DePalma Spinning Ball Experiment works the way it does Now, as I've often noted "science is nothing As a part of that program, in order to test nosecones for reentry through the atmosphere, they developed a special test vehicle to achieve the necessary high velocity.
It consisted of a Redstone first stage, topped by clusters of small solid propellant rockets forming an additional two stages. It was consciously designed from the beginning so that an additional stage could be added in place of the test nosecone to make the vehicle orbit-capable. The three upper stages with the satellite payload [would then separate] from the booster and zoom upward, spinning in their tub-shaped assembly in free-coasting, unpropelled flight, toward the apex Off [would go] the first cluster of scaled Sergeants, which quickly [would boost] the speed [of the entire, still spinning "tub"] by thousands of miles per hour.
Seconds later, the next cluster of rockets [would ignite], pushing the final-stage rocket, with its satellite, ever closer to that critical orbital velocity. Then the single rocket in the final stage [would be triggered]. Its thrust [would drive] the The diagram shows how the third stage fit neatly inside the second stage like a set of nested decanter glasses Von Braun and JPL which designed this rotating , solid-propellant upper stage configuration There -- plain as day!
The added color inset above - left is a frame from a US Army PR film -- showing a top-down view of a one-third scale model of a "nuclear reentry vehicle" for a forthcoming IRBM test, carefully mounted on "the tub"; with the cover not yet in place, you can also see clearly the placement of the 11 second-stage JPL "Sergeant" rockets, mounted in their circular waiting to be spun up The dummy warhead is the purplish "cone" on top of the hidden third stage.
As Ludwig noted, this one-third scale warhead model was simply replaced in the "satellite Jupiter-C configuration," by that additional fourth stage solid-fuel rocket -- atop which was literally bolted the Explorer I satellite itself below. Here below , JPL engineers work on a full-size mock-up of this "spinning tub" assembly, with a separate mock-up of the fourth stage and Explorer I on top -- the full "satellite version" of the Jupiter-C. And here below , is the three-stage "rotating tub's" operational configuration -- complete with the real Explorer I -- all mounted atop the conical "instrument section" and below that , the liquid-fuel main stage of the Jupiter-C booster itself.
The vertical black stripe painted on the side of the "tub" is to allow blockhouse engineers to optically monitor the rate of spin of the three nested upper stages on the pad, as they were coming "up to speed" between and rpm So, precisely as predicted by the HD model and DePalma!
Mystery of "the unexplained higher orbit" For, this "confirmation" only deepened the real mystery: Why does "spinning" a steel pinball, or One of the first reactions I had to this fascinating confirmation -- that portions of von Braun's rocket HAD to spin, inevitably from DePalma's experiment Further, it was now obvious that this is why von Braun also missed the Moon Again he was using, in his Juno-2 "moonrocket" a further modification of the Jupiter-C Of course, the reason why simply "spinning an object" should so dramatically change its "Newtonian dynamics" -- against all current mainstream theories including, "sacred" Relativity It is hard to overstate both the scientific and political significance of von Braun's initial Explorer I discovery swiftly confirmed, as we have documented, by Explorers III and IV , and all three Vanguard launches!
The US Navy Vanguard three-stage rocket also utilized a solid-propellant in its third stage And, of course, then there was Allais ALL these independent, dynamical results revealed "huge, gaping holes DePalma himself, trained as a mainstream physicist for decades at two of the premier universities on the planet -- MIT and Harvard! The increased moments of inertia discovered for precessional motion were translated into a series of measurements on pendula with rotating bobs.
Although the discoveries of the inertial effects associated with precession and pendulum oscillations of rotating bob weights were highly suggestive, this author greatly resisted [for several years] attempts to force him to drop a rotating object for two reasons. Second, there was no reason to expect inertial alterations [because of Einstein's inviolate "Principal of Equivalence"] to affect the rate of fall of a released object and there was no available theory which could in any way be applied to the situation or a falling rotating object in a gravitational field.
This is a situation known in religious terms as a "leap into the dark. The result of the experiment was s o startling and anomalous as to have taken me five years to understand.
Basically, the spinning object going higher than the identical non-rotating control with the same initial velocity, and, then falling faster than the identical non-rotating control, presents a dilemma which can only be resolved or understood The space which contains the object also contains energy and we can go at the project in two ways: The behavior of rotating objects is explained [after much thought] simply on the addition of free energy to whatever motion the rotating object is [already] making.
In terms of the dropping of the spinning ball, the understanding of the experiment involves the results of many other experiments as well as the resolution of a mind picture of the Universe which is our best approximation to understanding at the present time.
What makes it difficult for other experimenters to understand the experiment is that it is not simply the results which are important. Without a theoretical foundation of understanding to make the experiment comprehensible -- to fit the results into a context of rational understanding and harmony with the facts of other experiments -- the data become trivial and worthless, and, worst of all, subject to misinterpretation.
The behavior of rotating objects is explained simply on the addition of free energy to whatever motion the rotating object is [already] making. This summation of DePalma's thoughts on the "spinning ball experiment" is, in my opinion, a significant summation of the results of all of his decades of ground-breaking experiments in "rotation.
I t is also the key to understanding exactly what von Braun -- independently, serendipitously -- actually discovered with Explorer I For, after literally years of pondering its meaning -- in concert with all the other "rotation and inertia experiments" he had carried out -- DePalma, 25 years after Explorer and knowing nothing of its anomalies or its profound significance to his own work That, instead, it represented a unique window into a far deeper reality One of our unfinished, on-going discussions abruptly cut short by Bruce's tragic and untimely death, in The act of mere "rotation" -- in the HD Model -- literally "opens a type of 'gate,' or 'geometric doorway Intriguingly enough, our decades-old debates also now provided another actually, "collateral" DePalma proposed, as a result of his wide-ranging rotational experiments, that "rotating masses" in general set up some kind of hitherto unrecognized "inertial field" in their vicinity the more widely-used term for this field now, because of how it's accessed, is a "torsion field" -- because "torsion" means literally "rotation".
DePalma's exhaustive measurements like the famous " Accutron Experiment" - below eventually revealed that this "torsion field" was "anisotropic," i. If measured along the rotational axis as seen in the diagram - above Again, these differences -- measured "within the spin field" -- were NOT slight As can also be seen in the above diagram, because the research of DePalma's "Simularity Institute" was not funded by "lavish government grants or major corporate donations Unable to afford expensive "electronic frequency counters" to measure the actual vibrations of the Accutron tuning fork, DePalma did the next best thing with what he had; he physically attached the Accutron watch to the face of an electrically-driven "Westclock" fed by 60 cycle, "AC line current" from the wall.
Decades later, in , I decided that Bruce's elegant Accutron-based "inertial field detector" -- if upgraded with a laptop and a "computerized, crystal frequency calibration system" easily affordable now This is an event, which happens only in "pairs" separated by 8 years every years..! A friend and colleage, Bill Alek -- an electrical engineer and computer systems expert, as well as an Enterprise Associate -- professionally assembled the required equipment for our "Venus Transit Experiment" see schematic - below.
Bill's system as you'll see We decided to choose as our Transit location, southeast Florida's famed "Coral Castle" an entire story in itself! We chose the Castle, in part, because toward the very end of this particular Transit, as Venus was about to leave the disc of the Sun And physical sunrise -- according to our previous hyperdimensional calculations -- was a particularly propitious time to be measuring the possible "torsion alignment effects" of the Sun To make a LONG story shorter For a watch normally rated by Bulova as " Venus and the Sun -- by means of their own extraordinary masses and separate, but reversed, rotations Venus spins backwards, remember Which from the frequency plot - above were clearly able to send successive, " interfering waves" of torsion note the descending, "bell-like ringing" If you have the correct physics model As I watched the Sun rise over the edge of the Atlantic -- with tiny Venus remember, the size of the Earth..!
DePalma had a quirky sense of humor, perhaps best revealed by his naming of this mysterious "inertial field" Thinking of DePalma at that remarkable moment, I couldn't help but also think "how odd However, as Depalma had observed himself years before , the resulting influence of these "OD field" effects -- be it from spinning laboratory discs Reactions which do not take place under 'normal' conditions may be catalyzed. Other reactions may be inhibited [emphasis added] Returning us to the problem of von Braun's "anomaly.
C onfirmation of DePalma's projected"OD field chemical effect" to use his term That their physical rotation ala DePalma R emember DePalma's previous analysis, that " What if, as DePalma theorized, this fundamental "free energy" addition also extended down to the atomic and molecular levels?! Could "Von Braun's Secret" that night have involved far more than just a blatant violation of "Newton's Laws As should be readily apparent to anyone thinking deeply about all this, von Braun himself clearly if inadvertantly had tripped over " a vast source of free energy in space Which "they," for obvious reasons Big Oil, anyone?
Imagine what the world would look like now With our clear identification of Explorer I's "non-Newtonian anomalies" as being due to the rotation of the launch vehicle's solid-rocket stages, the celestial-mechanics "fix" for future US space missions -- including the Apollo Program -- was as simple as it was obvious: So, the fascinating question then becomes: In other words, when did they "figure out" regarding Newton's Laws But because Newton did not distinguish between rotation and non-rotation, Einstein did not distinguish between the so-called inert and 'gravitational mass.
In a gravitational field, the possibility of extraction of greater energy by a new mechanical dimension [rotation] opens up the possibility [against both Newton and Einstein] of an anti-gravitational interaction [emphasis added] …. So, von Braun and Pickering eventually realized that, if you wanted a spacecraft to follow predictable Newtonian celestial mechanics -- in Earth orbit A Program attempting to make available to US space planners, for the first time " Seen against the serious space navigation problems of the "non-Newtonian anomaly" that JPL was also obviously racing the clock to try to "figure out" , this risky engineering decision, in hindsight, now makes perfect sense.
So, the question looms To answer that key question, we must go back once more in time Immediately upon Pickering's appointment, as part of his own long-term agenda to turn JPL "into the premiere space laboratory in the world In an era when the idea of just launching "a satellite into orbit Pickering promptly resubmitted "Project Red Socks" which, by then, had morphed into an entire "JPL unmanned lunar program What's fascinating about "Red Socks" is how Pickering was originally proposing to send an umnanned spacecraft to the Moon For, in his design, the spacecraft was to carry a high-quality reconnaisance camera loaded with film no "television" And -- they'd use "Eastman Kodak film" to do it!
Pickering built his proposal around von Braun's parallel development discussed earlier This indicates the extremely close working relationship between Bill Pickering and Wernher von Braun, long before Sputnik and Explorer note the 11 Sergeant rockets visible in this photograph, down through the holes in the top of the Jupiter-C's rotating "tub" -- just below the one-third scale model of the reentry vehicle itself.
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The lineage of the name Pickering begins with the Anglo-Saxon tribes in Britain. It is a result of when they lived in the parish of Pickering found in the North Riding of humorrmundiall.gaing is a habitation name that was originally derived from the pre-existing name for a parish. It was originally derived from the Old English word Picora which referred to those individuals who lived at the. This page hosts a gallery of AMDOs past and present. If you have any "interesting" photos of your fellow AMDOs, please e-mail them in. We especially like group shots of the AMDOs and green shirts in your CV, CVW, AIMD and FRC. Note that, unlike the rest of the . The United States Congress authorized the original six frigates of the United States Navy with the Naval Act of on March 27, , at a total cost of $, These ships were built during the formative years of the United States Navy, on the recommendation of designer Joshua Humphreys for a fleet of frigates powerful enough to engage any frigates of the French or British navies yet.